Biblical writings are proverbially difficult to date. They contain some very old stories (myths and legends or prophesies and poems) which were transmitted orally for generations and then reworked and substantially edited by generations of authors and scribes. Thus it is very difficult, almost impossible, to date any text in the Hebrew Bible.
But then, there is Psalm 110. With this psalm there can be hardly any doubt when it was written. The psalm itself gives us the date of its composition. It is spelled out in the ACROSTIC. Acrostic is a stylistic device, a form of alliteration, in which the message can be hidden in plain sight. Each line or each verse or each paragraph opens with a letter and those letters together give a message. In this Psalm the first letters of each verse read in Hebrew SIMON (THE) AWE(SOME) and they refer to a known historical figure Simon Thassi, or Simon Maccabee. He was an early and important ruler from the Hasmonean dynasty who ruled over Judea between years 142-135 BCE.
This identification is further confirmed by the content of the psalm. Interestingly, this psalm mentions an obscure, legendary, MELCHIZEDEK. This mythical figure is directly connected with Simon Maccabee. Simon had a problem as he was from a priestly family and he was of Aaronic lineage but did not have any royal legitimacy - no connection to the Davidic dynasty. Melchizedek was brought up to help with it because he is mentioned in Genesis as a King but at the same time receives from Abraham an offering. Melchizedek is king and priest at the same time. Simon’s propagandists lifted up Melchizedek from obscurity to legitimize similar conflation of royal and priestly function. This psalm is also particularly fierce and bellicose. Thus well suited for a bellicose and chauvinistic Maccabean ruler with a legitimacy problem.
Psalm 110 might be ascribed to David but was written centuries later in Hellenistic times as propaganda tool for the Maccabean priestly dynasty attempting to legitimize their political rule. And this psalm might be just the tip of an iceberg. Many scholars suspect that substantial parts of Hebrew Bible were actually written quite late in Hellenistic times and with similar religious and political agendas.
And that is something you might not know about the Bible.
And for our Sunday service we need to understand that priests in ancient times were unlike any modern priests. They were not only religious professionals but they were directly associated with the leavers and structures of power. They were princes like bishops in feudal Europe, like ancient Billy Grahams and Jerry Falwells deeply implicated in corrupting religion and being corrupted by power structures of their times.